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Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels


Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels




JOHN A. SELBIE, D.D. _^ _ ^^



^7^^ ^^'^








Edinburgh: T. & T. CLARK




In issuing the second volume of the Dictionaky of Christ and the Gospels, the Editor desires, first of all, to thank his colleagues and contributors for the interest that they have taken in the work. He desires, further, to express his gratitude for the reception which the first volume has met with. All concerned in it are ready to confess that the task of producing a Dictionary which could be spoken of as really worthy of its subject has been beyond them. And they have felt this only the more as the work has proceeded. But reviewers have generously recognized the fact that no trouble has been spared to make the Dictionary as worthy as possible ; and the public everywhere, but especially preachers of the Gospel, have responded. It is hoped that the second volume will be found to be not inferior to the first.

The Appendix belongs to the original idea. It was felt from the beginning that the articles which it contains should be placed in a group, apart from the general alphabetical order.



I. General

Alex. = Alexandrian.

Apoc. = Apocalypse, Apocalyptic,

Apocr. = Apocrypha, Apocryphal.

Aq. =Aquila.

Arab. = Arabic.

Aram. = Aramaic.

Assyr. Assyrian.

Bab. = Babylonian.

c. = circa, about.

Can. = Canaanite.

of. = compare.

ct. = contrast.

D = Deuteronomist.

E = Eloliist.

edd. = editions or editors.

Egyp. = Egyptian.

Eng.= English.

Eth. = Ethiopic.

f . = and following verse or page : as Ac 10^'*.

tl'. =and following verses or pages : as Mt IP

Gr.= Greek.

H = Law of Holiness.

Heb. = Hebrew.

Hel. = Hellenistic,

Hex. =Hexateuch.

Isr. = Israelite.

J = Jahwist,

J" = Jehovah.

Jerus. = Jerusalem.

Jos. = Josephus,

LXX = Septnagint.

MSS = Manuscripts.

MT = Massoretic Text,

n. =note.

NT = New Testament.

Onk. = Onkelos.

0T = Old testament.

P = Priestly Narrative.

Pal. = Palestine, Palestinian,

Pent. = Pentateuch.

Pers. = Persian.

Phil. = Philistine.

Phoen. = Phanician.

Pr. Bk. = Prayer Book.

R = Redactor.

Kom. = Roman.

Sam. = Samaritan.

Sem. = Semitic.

Sept. = Septuagint.

Sin. = Sinaitic.

Symm. =Symmachus.

Syr. = Syriac.

Talm. = Talmud.

Targ. = Targum.

Theod. =Theo<lotion.

TR = Textus Receptus.

tr. = translate or translation.

VSS = Versions.

Vulg. = Vulgate.

WH = Westcott and Hort's text.

IL Books of the Bible

Old Testament.

Gn = Genesis,

Ex = Exodus,

Lv = Leviticus,

Nu = Numbers.

Dt = Deuteronomy.

Jos = Joshua.

Jg = Judges.

Ru = Rutli.

1 S, 2 S = 1 and 2 Samuel.

1 K, 2 K = l and 2 Kings.

1 Ch, 2 Ch = 1 and 2

Chronicles. Ezr = Ezra. Neh = Nehemiah. Est = Esther. Job.

Ps = Psalms. Pr = Proverbs. Ec = Ecclesiastes.

Apocrypha. 1 Es, 2 Es = l and 2 To = Tobit. Esdras. Jth = Judith.

Ca = Canticles, Is = Isaiah. Jer = Jeremiah. La = Lamentations. Ezk = Ezekiel. Dn = Daniel. Hos = Hosea. Jl = Joel. Am = Amos. Ob^Obadiah. Jon = Jonah. Mic = Micah. Nab = Nahum. Hab= Habakkuk. Zeph = Zephaniah. Hag = Haggai. Zee = Zechariah. Mal = Malachi.

Ad. Est = Additions to

Esther. Wis = Wisdom. Sir = Sirach or Ecclesi-

asticus. Bar = Baruch. Three = Song of the

Three Children.

Sus = Susanna.

Bel = Bel and the

Dragon. Pr. Man = Prayer of

Manasses. 1 Mac, 2 Mac=l and 2


Mt = Matthew. Mk = Mark. Lk = Luke. Jn = John. Ac = Acts. Ro = Romans. 1 Co, 2 Co = 1

Corinthians. Gal = Galatians. Eph = Ephesians. Ph = Philippians. Col = Colossians.

Neio Testament.

1 Th, 2 Th = 1 and 2

Thessalonians. 1 Ti, 2 Ti = 1 and 2

Timothy. Tit = Titus. _ Philem = Philemon, and 2 He = Hebrews. Ja = James.

1 P, 2P = 1 and 2 Peter. 1 Jn, 2 Jn, 3 Jn = l, 2,

and 3 John. Jude. Rev = Revelation.


III. English Versions

\Vyc.=Wyclif's Bible (NT c. 1380, OT c. 1382,

Purvey 's Revision c. 1388). Tind.=Tindale's NT 1526 and 1534, Pent. 1530. Gov. = Coverdale's Bible 1535. Matt, or Rog.= Matthew's (i.e. prob. Rogers')

Bible 1537. Cran. or Great = Cranmer's 'Great' Bible 1539. Tav. = Taverner's Bible 1539. Gen. = Geneva NT 1557, Bible 1560.

Bish. = Bishops' Bible 1568.

Tom.=Tomson's NT 1576.

Rhem, =Rhemish NT 1582.

Don. = Douay OT 1609.

AV = Authorized Version 1611.

A Vm = Authorized Version margin.

RV = Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885.

RVm = Revised Version margin.

EV = Autli. and Rev. Versions.

IV. For the Literature

AHT— Ancient Hebrew Tradition.

.(4 J^S'-L = American Journal of Sem. Lang, and

Literature. ^J'TA = American Journal of Theology. ^r=Altes Testament. BL = Bampton Lecture. £if= British Museum. i^i?P=; Biblical Researches in Palestine. CIG = Coi'pus Inscriptionum Grjecaruni. OIL = Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. C/,S'= Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum. (707"= Cuneiform Inscrijitions and the OT. Di?— Dictionary of the Bible. DCA = Dictionary of Christian Antiquities. ^i?i = EncyclopaHlia Biblica. £'i?7-= Encyclopiwlia Britannica. ^G2'=Ex2)ositor's Greek Testament. EHH^'Esivly History of the Helirews. ERE = Encyclopanlia of Religion and Ethics. ExpT= Expository Times. G^4P=Geographie des alten Palastina. GG^^ =G6ttingische Gelehrte Anzeigen. (rGV=Nachrichten der konigl. Gesellschaft der

Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. (TJ'F'=Geschichte des Jlidischen Volkes. (rF/=Geschichte des Volkes Israel. HE A = Handworterbuch des biblischen Alter-

tums. /rC^l/= Higher Criticism and the Monuments. -ff^=Historia Ecclesiastica. i/G^/fX = Historical Geog. of Holy Land. 111= History of Israel. /rJP = History of the Jewish People. HP J[=B.istory, Prophecy, and the Monuments. i/^PV= Hebrew Proper Names. HJVB = Handworterbuch. ICC= International Critical Commentary. /•/G = Israelitische und Jiidische Geschichte. JBL =Jonvnii\ of Biblical Literature. J"Z) r/i=Jahrbiicher fiir deutsche Tlieologie. JE = Jewish Encyclopedia. JQR = Jewish. Quarterly Review. ./P^.S'= Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. JSL Journal of Sacred Literature. J'7'A,.% = Journal of Theological Studies A''^7'=Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Test. AGP=Keilinschriften u. Geschiehtsforschung. A'/5= Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. LB = The Land and the Book. iC£^= Literarisches Centralblatt.

iOr=Introd. to the Literature of the Old Test. LT=Liie and Times of Jesus the Messiah

[Edei'sheim]. i)/AZ)PF=Mittheilungen u. Nachrichten d.

deutschen Pal.-Vereins. NHWB = Neuhebrjiisches Worterbuch. A'^A'Z^Neue kirchliche Zeitschrift. NTZG = Neutestamentliche Zeitgeschichte. CV=Otium Norvicense. OP = Origin of the Psalter. OTJC =The Old Test, in the Jewish Church. PP = Polychrome Bible. PEF~ Palestine Exploration Fund. FEFSt = Quarterly Statement of the same. PSBA = Proceedings of Soc. of Bibl. Archaeology. PPA' = Real-Encykloj)adie fiir protest. Tlieologie

und Kirche. (?PP = Queen's Printers' Bible. ii?P = Revue Biblique. RE = Realencyklopiidie. REJ= Revue des Etudes Juives. PP= Records of the Past. P»S' = Religion of the Semites. R WB = Realworterbuch. »S'P£'= Sacred Books of the East. 6'P(9r = Sacred Books of Old Test. -SA'or r.SA'=Theol. Studien und Kritiken. ,S'P = Sinai and Palestine.

,S7rP= Memoirs of the Survey of W. Palestine. ThL or ThLZ =liheo\. Literaturzeitung. r/ir=Theol. Tijdschrift. T'S'= Texts and Studies.

TSBA = Transactions of Soc. of Bibl. Archaeology. TU =Texte und Untersuchungen. IF^ /= Western Asiatic Inscriptions. TrZ/irJ/= Wiener Zeitschrift fiir Kunde des

Morgenlandes. ZA = Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie. ZAW or Z^r IF = Zeitschrift fiir die Alttest.

Wissenschaft. .Z'Z)J/G = Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgen-

landischen Gesellschaft. ZZ)P F= Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palastina-

Vereins. Z/r.S'P- Zeitschrift fiir Keilschriftforschung. ZKW or ZKWL = Zeitschrift fiir kirchliche

Wissenschaft und kirchl. Leben. ZVTlF=Zeitsclirift fiir die Neutest. Wissen- schaft. Zr/i/ir= Zeitschrift f. Theologie u. Kirche.

A small superior number designates the particular edition of the work referred to : as KAT\ LOT^



Rev. Robert M. Adamson, M.A., Ardrossan.

Rev. Walter Frederick Adeney, D.D., Pro- fessor of Theology and Principal of the Lancashire College, Manchester.

Rev. Gross Alexander, S.T.D., late Professor of New Testament Greek and Exegesis in Vander- bilt University, Nashville.

Rev. WiLLOUGHBY C. Allen, M.A., Chaiilain, Fellow, and Lecturer in Theology and Hebrew, Exeter College, Oxford.

Rev. Frederick Lincoln Anderson, M.A., D.D., Professor of New Testament Interpre- tation, Newton Theological Institution, Mass.

Rev. Benjamin Wisner Bacon, D.D., LL.D., Lit.D., Professor of New Testament Criticism and Exegesis in Yale University, New Haven.

Rev. P. MoRDAUNT Barnard, B.D., late Rector of Headley, Epsom.

Rev. J. Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D., Professor of Church History in Mansfield College, Oxford.

Late Rev. Francis R. Beattie, Ph.D., D.D., LL.D., Professor of Apologetics and Syste- matic Theology in the Presbyterian Theological Seminary of Kentucky.

Very Rev. John Henry Bernard, D.D., D.C.L., Dean of St. Patrick's and Archbishop King's Professor of Divinity in the University of Dublin.

Rev. Harry Bisseker, M.A., The Leysian Mission, London.

Rev. Andrew Bogle, M.A., Leith.

Rev. Albert Bonus, M.A., Alphington, Exeter.

Rev. George H. Box, M.A., late Hebrew Master, Merchant Taylors' School, London, Rector of Linton, Ross.

Rev. E. P. Boys-Smith, M.A., Vicar of Kordle, Brockenhuist.

Rev. J. B. Bristow, B.D., Rector of Clondalkin, Co. Dublin.

Rev. MORISON Bryce, Baldernock, Milngavie.

Rev. A. E. Burn, D.D., Rector of Handsworth, Birmingham, and Prebendary of Lichfield.

Rev. Adam G. Campbell, M.A., Afton, New Cumnock.

Rev. R. J. Campbell, M.A., City Temple, London.

Rev. William M. Christie, Aleppo.

Rev. DUGALD Clark, B.D., Glassary, Loch- gilphead.

Rev. John S. Clemens, B.A., B.D., Principal of Ranmoor College, Sheffield.

Rev. Camden M. Cobern, Pli.D., D.D., Pro- fessor of the English Bible and the Philosophy of Religion in Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa.

Rev. Arthur W. Cooke, M.A., Newcastle-on- Tyne.

Rev. James Cooper, D.D., Professor of Ecclesi- astical History in the University of Glasgow.

Rev. Henry Cowan, D.D., Professor of Church History in the University of Aberdeen.

Rev. Hugh H. Currie, B.D., Keig, Aberdeen- shire.

Rev. Edgar Daplyn, Child's Hill, London.

Right Rev. Charles Frederick D'Arcy, D.D., Bishop of Clogher.

Rev. Edward Charles Dargan, D.D., LL.D., formerly Professor of Homiletics and Ecclesi- ology in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Ky.

Rev. Percy Dearmer, M.A., Vicar of St. Mary's the Virgin, Primrose Hill, London.

Rev. Francis Brigham Denio, D.D., Professor of Old Testament Languages and Literature in Bangor Theological Seminary, Maine.

Rev. James Denney, D.D., Professor of New Testament Language, Literature, and Theology in the United Free Church College, Glasgow.

Rev. Marcus Dods, D.D., Principal and Pro- fessor of Exegetical Theology in the New College, Edinburgh.

Rev. James Donald, D.D., Keithhall, Inverurie.

Rev. Henry E. Dosker, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the Presbyterian Theological Seminary of Kentucky.

Rev. F. Homes Dudden, D.D., Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford.

Rev. Alexander A. Duncan, B.D., Auchterless, Aberdeenshire.

Rev. Hugh Duncan, B.D., Garturk, Coatbridge.

Rev. W. H. DuNDAS, B.D., Rector of Magheragall,

Lisburn. Rev. William Henry Dyson, Edgerton, Hudders-



Rev. George Boardmax Eager, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Biblical Introduction and Pastoral Theology in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Ky.

Right Rev. Rowland Ellis, D.D., Bishop of

Aberdeen and Orkney.

Rev. Cyril W. Emmet, M.A., Vicar of West Hendred, Berks.

Rev. \V. EwiNG, M.A., Edinburgh.

Rev. R. A. Falconer, D.Litt., D.D., President of the University of Toronto, Canada

Rev. J. H. Farmer, B.A., LL.D., Dean in The- ology and Professor of New Testament and Patristic Greek in M 'Master University, Toronto.

Rev. C. L. Feltoe, D.D., Rector of Duxford, Cambridge.

Rev. Adam Fyfe Findlay, M.A., Arbroath.

Rev. J. Dick Fleming, B.D., Professor of Syste- matic Theology and Ethics in Manitoba College, Winnipeg.

Rev. Frank Hugh Foster, Ph.D., D.D., Pro- fessor of History in Olivet College, Michigan.

Rev. William Barrett Frankland, M.A., late Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and Assistant-Chaplain at Giggleswick School.

Rev. Robert Sleightholme Franks, M.A., B.Litt., Birmingham.

Rev. Norman Eraser, B.D., Edinburgh.

Rev. Henry William Fulford, M.A., Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge.

Rev. Alfred Ernest Garvie, D.D., Principal of New College and Professor of Ethics, Theism, and Comparative Religion in New and Hackney Colleges, London.

Rev. Owen H. Gates, Ph.D., Librarian and In- structor in Hebrew in Andover Theological Seminarj', Mass.

Rev. LuciEN Gautier, D.D., Ph.D., Honorary Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and History, Geneva.

Rev. Alfred S. Geden, M.A., Professor of Biblical Literature and Exegesis in Richmond College, Surrey.

Rev. Richard Glaister, B.D., Kirkcudbright.

Rev. Calvin Good.speed, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Systematic Theology in Baylor University, Waco, Texas.

Rev. George Pearce Gould, M.A., Principal of Regent's Park College, London.

Rev. Thomas Gregory, M.A., Kilmalcolm.

Rev. Canon Charles T. P. Grierson, B.D., Rector of Seapatrick, Banbridge, Co. Down.

Rev. G. H. Gwilliam, B.D., Rector of Remen- ham, Henley-on-Thames.

Rev. James O. Hannay, M.A., Rector of Augh- aval, Westport, Co. Mayo.

Rev. J. M. Harden, B.D., Headmaster, Kilkenny College.

Rev. Charles Harris, D.D., Vicar of Claverley, Wolverhampton, late Lecturer in Theology in St. David's College, Lampeter.

Rev. D. A. Hayes, Ph.D., S.T.D., LL.D., Pro- fessor of New Testament Exegesis in GaiTett Biblical Institute, Evanston, 111.

Rev. W. J. Henderson, B.A., Principal of the Baptist College, Bristol.

Rev. R. Travers Herford, B.A., Stand, White- field, Manchester.

Rev. John Herkless, D.D., Professor of Church History in the University of St. Andrews.

Rev. W. W. HOLDSWORTH, M.A., Professor of New Testament -Language and Literature in Handsworth College, Birmingham.

Rev. A. Mitchell Hunter, M.A., Cardross, Dumbartonshire.

Rev. H. L. Jackson, M.A., Vicar of St. Mary's, Huntingdon.

Rev. Arthur Jenkinson, Innellan, Greenock.

A. J. JENKIN.S0N, M.A., Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford.

Rev. M. P. Johnstone, B.D., Fraserburgh.

Rev. E. Griffith- Jones, B.A., Principal and Professor of Theology in the Yorkshire United College, Bradford.

Friedrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Kattenbusch, D.D., Ph.D., Ord. Professor of Dogmatics in the University of Halle.

Rev. John Kelman, D.D., Edinburgh.

Rev. W. S. Kerr, B.D., Vicar of Bally waiter, Co.

Down. Rev. David M. W. Laird, M.A., Edinburgh. Rev. J. C. Lambert, D.D., Fenwick, Kilmarnock.

Rev. Harrington C. Lees, M.A., St. John's Vicarage, Kenilworth.

Rev. Robert Leggat, Berwick-on-Tweed.

Rev. John Robert Legge, M.A., Buckhurst Hill, Essex.

Rev. Thomas M. Lindsay, D.D., Principal and Professor of Church History in the United Free Church College, Glasgow.

Rev. William F. Lofthouse, M.A., Professor of Old Testament Languages and Literature in the Theological College, Handsworth, Birmingham.

Rev. Charles Scott Mac alpine, B.D., Man- chester.

Rev. A. B. Macaulay, M.A., Dundee.

Rev. C. A. M 'Donald, B.D., Arrochar, Dum- bartonshire.

Rev. John Edgar M'Fadyen, M.A. (Glas.), B.A. (Oxon.), Professor of Old Testament Litera- ture and Exegesis in Knox College, Toronto.

Rev. George M'Hardy, D.D., Kirkcaldy.

Rev. George M. Mackie, D.D., Chaplain to the Church of Scotland at Beyrout, Syria.

Rev. Duncan A. Mackinnon, M.A., Marykirk, Kincardineshire.

Rev. Robert Mackintosh, D.D., Professor of Christian Ethics, Apologetics, and Sociology in the Lancashire Independent College, Man- chester.

Right Rev. Arthur J. Maclean, D.D., Bishop of Moray.

Rev. A. H. M'Neile, B.D., Fellow and Dear of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.

Rev. James Edmond M'Ouat, B.D., Logiealmond, Perthshire.

Rev. Robert Macpherson, D.D., Elgin.

Rev. Joseph T. L. Maggs, D.D., Leeds.


Rev. David Samuel Margoliouth, M.A.,

D.Litt., Laudian Professor of Arabic in the

University of Oxford. Rev. John Turner Marshall, D.D., Principal

of the Baptist College, Manchester. Rev. Newton Herbert Marshall, M.A., Ph.D.,

Hampstead, London. Rev. A. Stuart Martin, B.D., Scone, Perth.

Rev. G. CURRIE Martin, B.D., Professor of New Testament Theology and Patristics in the United College, Bradford.

E. W. GURNEY Masterman, M.D., F.R.C.S., F.R.G.S., D.P.H., Jerusalem, Syria.

Rev. Shailer Mathews, D.D., Professor of His- torical and Comparative Theology and Dean of the Divinity School in the Unversity of Chicago.

Rev. Andrew Miller, M.A., Glasgow.

Rev. W, J. S. Miller, B.D., Hound wood, Reston.

Rev. George Milligan, D.D., Caputh, Murthly.

Rev. Joseph Mitchell, B.D., Mauchline.

Rev. James Moffatt, D.D., Broughty Ferry.

Rev. W. S. Montgomery, B.D., Abbeyleix, Queen's County.

Rev. R. W. Moss, D.D., Professor of Systematic Theology in the Didsbury College, Manchester.

Rev. Warren Joseph Moulton, M.A., B.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor of New Testament Language and Literature in Bangor Theo- logical Seminary.

Rev. T. Allen Moxon, MA., Vicar of Alfreton,

Derbyshire. Rev. John Muir, B.D., Kirkcowan, Wigtownshire. Rev. George Murray, B.D., Sauchie, Alloa. Rev, James Ross Murray, M.A., Manchester.

Rev. James Mursell, M.A., Adelaide, South Australia.

Eberhard Nestle, Ph.D., D.D., Professor at Maulbronn.

Rev. M. R. Newbolt, B.A., Vicar of IfHey, Oxford.

Rev. Albert Henry Newman, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Church History in Baylor Uni- versity, W^aco, Texas.

Rev. Thomas Nicol, D.D., Professor of Biblical Criticism in the University of Aberdeen.

Rev. W. O. E. Oesterley, B.D., Organizing Secretary of the Parochial Missions to the Jews.

Rev. James Orr, D.D., Professor of Systematic Theology and Apologetics in the United Free Church College, Glasgow.

Rev, James Patrick, B.D., B.Sc, Burntisland.

Rev. William Patrick, D.D., Principal of Manitoba College, W^innipeg.

Arthur S. Peake, D.D., Professor of Biblical Exegesis and Dean of the Faculty of Theology, Victoria University, Manchester.

Rev. John Robert van Pelt, Ph.D., Methodist Episcopal Church, Lewisburg, Pa.

Rev. Samuel Plantz, Ph.D., D.D., LL.D., Presi- dent of Lawrence University, Ajipleton, Wis.

Rev. Alfred Plummer, D.D., late Master of University College, Durham.

Rev. Edward B. Pollard, D.D., Professor in Crozer Theological Seminary, Chester, Pa,

Rev. William Louis Poteat, M.A., LL.D., President of Wake Forest College, N.C.

Rev. Cyril Henry Prichard, M.A., Rector of Wiston, Steyning, Sussex.

Rev. Leighton Pullan, M.A., Fellow and Lec- turer of St. John Baptist College, Oxford.

Rev. Frederick J. Rae, M.A., Aberdeen.

Rev. F. S. Ranken, M.A., Rector of South Walsham, Norwich.

Rev. W. H. Rankine, B.D., Glasgow,

Rev. John Reid, M.A., Inverness.

Frank Richards, M.A., Kingswood School, Bath.

Rev. Charles W^esley Rishell, Ph.D., Professor of Historical Theology and Assistant Dean in Boston University, Mass.

Rev. John Edward Roberts, B.D., Manchester.

Rev. Frank Edward Robinson, B.A., Professor of Hebrew and Church History in the Baptist College, Bristol.

Rev. George Livingstone Robinson, Ph.D., D.D., Professor of Old Testament Literature and Exegesis in the M'Cormick Theological Seminary, Chicago.

Rev. Arthur E. Ross, B.D., Rector of Portrush, Co. Antrim.

Rev. Alfred Norman Rowland, M.A., London.

Rev. John Richard Sampey, D.D., LL.D., Pro- fessor of Interpretation of the Old Testament in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Ky.

Rev. William Sanday, D.D. , LL. D. , Litt. D. , Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford, Chaplain in Ordinary to H.M. the King.

Rev. Charles Anderson Scott, M.A., Professor of the Language, Literature, and Theology of the New Testament at Westminster College, Cambridge.

Rev. Ernest F. Scott, B.A., Prestwick.

Rev. Hugh M 'Donald Scott, D.D. Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the Theological Semi- nary, Chicago.

Rev. Robert Scott, D.D., Professor in Wilson

College, Bombay. Rev. Edward Sell, D.D., M.R.A.S., Fellow of

the University of Madras and Hon. Canon of

St. George's Cathedral, Madras.

Rev. Henry Clay Sheldon, D.D., Professor of Systematic Theology in Boston University.

Rev. Edward Shillito, M.A., London.

Rev. S. J. Ramsay Sibbald, B.D., Crathie,

Ballater. Rev. J. G, Simpson, M.A., Principal of the Clergy

School, Leeds. Rev. W. J. Sparrow Simpson, M.A., Chaplain,

St. Mary's Hospital, Ilford. Rev. John W. Slater, B.D., Scone, Perth. Rev. David Smith. M.A., Blairgowrie.

Rev. Harold Smith, M.A., Rector of Grimley,


Rev. J. Cromarty Smith, B.D., Coatdyke, Coat- bridge.



W. Taylor Smith, B.A., Sevenoaks, Kent.

Late Rev. J. SouTAR, M.A., Tiberias, Palestine.

Alexander Souter, M.A., D.Litt., Yates Pro- fessor of New Testament Greek and Exegesis in Mansfield College, Oxford.

Rev. James Stalker, D.D., Professor of Church

History and Christian Ethics in the United

Free Church College, Aberdeen. Rev. Wilbur Fletcher Steele, M,A., S.T.D.,

Professor in the Department of Biblical Science

of Denver University, Coloi-ado.

Rev. Robert Stevenson, B.D., Gargunnock.

Rev. G. Wauchope Stewart, B.D., Fyvie, Aber- deenshire.

Rev. Robert Laird Stewart, D.D., Professor of Biblical Archaeology in the Tiieological Sem- inary of Lincoln University, Pa.

Rev. Darwell Stone, M.A., Pusey Librarian,

Oxford. Rev. G. Gordon Stott, D.D., Musselburgh.

Very Rev. Thomas B. Strong, D.D., Dean of

Christ Church, Oxford. Rev. A. PoLLOK Sym, B.D., Lilliesleaf.

Rev. John G. Tasker, D.D., Professor of Biblical Literature and Exegesis in Handsworth Col- lege, Birmingham.

Rev. R. Bruce Taylor, M.A., London.

Rev. W. H. Griffith Thomas, D.D., Principal of Wycliffe Hall, Oxford.

Rev. Charles H. Thomson, M.A., Constantinople.

Rev. William D. Thomson, M.A., Edinburgh.

Rev. Edward Harper Titchmarsh, M.A., Sheffield.

Rev. Geerhardus Vos, Ph.D., D.D., Professor of Biblical Theology in the Theological Seminary, Princeton, N.J.

Rev. Canon G. H. S. Walpole, D.D., Rector of Lambeth.

Rev. Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield, D.D., LL.D., Charles Hodge Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology in the Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church at Princeton, N.J.

Rev. George C. Watt, B.D., Edinkillie.

Rev. Thomas H. Weir, B.D., M.R.A.S., Lecturer in Hebrew and Arabic in the University of Glasgow.

Johannes Weiss, D.D., Professor of Theology in the University of Marburg.

Rev. E. Wheeler, M.A., Canning Town, London.

Rev. B. Whitefoord, D.D., Prebendary of Salis- bury Cathedral and Principal of the Theo- logical College, Salisbury.

Rev. Owen C. Whitehouse, D.D., Senior Tutor in Cheshunt College, Cambridge.

Rev. A. R. Whitham, M.A., Principal of the Culham Training College, Abingdon.

Rev. J. R. Willis, B.D., Rector of Preban and Moyne, Rathdrum, Co. Wicklow.

Rev. Charles Travers Wood, M.A., Fellow and Lecturer in Hebrew in Queens' College, Cambridge.

Rev. H. J. Wotherspoon, M.A., Edinburgh.

Rev. Arthur Wright, D.D., Fellow, Tutor, and Vice-President of Queens' College, Cambridge.

Rev T. H. Wright, Edinburgh.

Rev D. G Young, B.D., Moneydie, Perth.

Rev. J Young, B.D., Paisley.

Rev. Andrew C. Zenos, D.D., Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the M'Cormick Theo- logical Seminary, Chicago.


LABOUR.— The verb Komdv in NT Greek signi- fies not only the weariness produced by constant toil (see Jn 4* KeKoinaKws), which is the idea attach- ing to the word in classical writings (cf. Liddell and Scott's Lex. s.v.) ; it also has reference to the toil itself (cf. Mt 628 1128, Lk 5' 122^, Jn 438), ^nd some- times to its result in the field of operations (6 ovx vfieh KeKowiaKaTe^Tov kowov in Jn 4^*8). This ex- tension in the use of the word is not confined, however, to the NT, and it is probable that it is l)orrowed from the LXX. We find it employed, for instance, in Joshua (24^^). Nor is it unlikely that Jesus had in His mind this passage and was even conscious of a parallel between Himself and the warlike leader of Israel's armies, who brought the nation into a land on the development of which they spent no wearisome toil {e(p' ^v ouk eKoiria(ya.Te, k.t.X.). The perfection of Christ's liuman nature is emphasized by the use of this word in the Johannine narrative of the woman of Samaria (Jn 4^), and it is worthy of note that the record of this incident is peculiar to that writing (see Westcott's Gospel of St. John, ad loc).

Closely allied to this word is epyd^ecrdaL and its cognates, ^pydrrjs which occurs frequently in the Gospels, and ^pyaffia almost peculiar to the Lukan writings. The last mentioned word not only im- plies the business or trade by which men gain their livelihood (Ac 192-*), but includes in its meaning the resultant gain or profit accruing (see Ac 16^^- ^^), and sometimes the trouble or toil involved in the pursuit of an object (Lk 12^8) ^n ethical content is imported into the word by St. Paul (Eph 41"), just as is done in St. Luke's Gospel Avhere a Latin- ism (56s epyacriav) is employed to emphasize the warning of Jesus with respect to the conciliation of an adversary. ' In medical language it was used for the making of some mixture, the mixture itself the work of digestion and that of the lungs,' etc. (Hobart, The Medical Language of St. Luke, p. 243). At the same time it must not be forgotten that this word is found in the LXX (cf. e.g. Wis 13'"), where St. Luke may have become familiar with its uses. A similar spiritual significance fre- quently attaches to the words Koiriav, kowo^, and ipydrr)! in the Gospel narratives (cf. Jn 4^8, jyjt, 9^'^^- = Lk 192, Mt 10i» = Lk 10^ 1327).

Considerations like these show us clearly in what spirit Jesus claimed the active support of His followers. Theirs was to be no half-hearted

allegiance. They were expected to work in His cause ceaselessly and in spite of weariness, for the field of operations was large and the toilers few (oi ipydrai oXiyoi, 6 depicffibs iroXvs, Mt Q^'^Lk 102). The conditions as to remuneration which obtained in the case of the ordinary field-labourer held good in the case of those who preached the Gospel (fi^tos yap 6 ipydr-qs rrjs rpocpris avTov, Mt 10'", cf. Lk 10'). His disciples were reminded that they were the successors of a long line of toilers who sowed the seed, of which they were about to reap the fruit {&W01 KiKOTn.dKacnv, (cat uyiiets eh rbv Kdirov avrQv elcreXr)- MdaTf, Jn 4=^8).

This is a thought which has a large place in the Pauline conception of Christian work, and the Christology of St. Paul enhances the dignity of, as it supplies the motive power which guides and strengthens, the toiler (cf. toXXo, ixo-riaa-iy h Kupiai, Ro 1612 ; see also 1 Co I510, Gal 411, Ph 216, Col 129, 1 Th 512). With this conception of laborious effort as the norm of Chris- tian life we may compare what is told of Rabbi Judah in the Midrash on Genesis, who sat labouring ' in the law ' before the Babylonish synagogue in Zipper (Bereshith Rabba, § 33). We are reminded of the exhortation respecting those ' who labour (0/ xoTiUvTii) in the word and in teaching' (1 Ti 5I'?). It may not be out of place to call attention here to those incidental statements which picture for us the Apostle of the Gentiles and his companions working day by day to supply their physical necessities (1 Co 412 x.<rriSyiv', cf. 96, 1 Th 29, 2 Th 38).

Not only does the life of Jesus exhibit the great example of self-sacrificing labour for the sake of the souls of men ; it furnishes, moreover, the prin- ciple that human life in all its phases is, at its best, a life of service. In its earliest stages obedi- ence to parental authority (Kal fjv viroTaaaonevoi avroU, Lk 2^') leads the way to willing obedience to a primal and fundamental law which conditions man's living to the full his present life (see Gn 3'" if idpuiTi Tov irpocribvov cov (pdyrj tov dprov aov, k.t.X.).

The question of His Galiljean neighbours who were familiar with the circumstances of Jesus' early life, ' Is not this the worker in wood ? ' (6 TiKTwv, Mk 6^), shows clearly how fully He adopted this principle as regulating the prepara- tory discipline of His young manhood. Nor must we forget that it was amongst that class which is dependent for its livelihood upon its capacity for physical labour and endurance that Jesus gained His most thoughtful, whole-hearted adherents (cf. Mk 116-20 = Mt4'8-22, Li^ 55ff.)^ ^vhile many of His most beautiful and effective similes are taken from the surroundings of the busy life (cf. Jn 4^"^-, Lk 102f-, Mt O^T'- 201-15 etc.). On the other hand, He reserved His profoundest commiseration for those



upon whom superfluous wealth had imposed a selfish idleness (see Mt 1923ff- = Mk lO'^^^ff.^ lj^ IQ^^f^-), and perhaps the most caustic remark in connexion with the life led by the unjust steward was that in which he confessed his inability for honest physical work (aKd-n-Teiv ovk iVxi'w, Lk 16^).

The remarkable apocryphal addition to Lk 6* found in Codex Bezoe (D), while primarily having reference to the Sabbath controversy, may not be without its bearing on this question. This passajje relates that Jesus ' seeing a certain man working on the Sabbath day said to him, " (), man, if thou indeed knowest what thou art doing, thou art blessed ; but if thou knowest not, thou art cursed, and art a transgressor of the law." ' Westcott believes that this saying ' rests on some real incident' (see his Introduction to the Study of the Gospels, App. C) ; and, indeed, the spirit underlying these words is not out of harmony \vith the general tenor of Christ's known atti- tude towards the active life of busy service. Whether any man's labour is a blessing or not to himself depends, of course, on whether he knows what he does and recognizes its bearing upon his whole life and character (cf . il alha,; m the passage just quoted, wliere there is evidently a reference to the relation between the work done and the doer of that work [see Cremer's Biblico-Theol. Lexicon of NT Greek, p. 229]).

A charge, which has been brought again and again against the Christian religion, is that it is too exclusive in its other - worldliness to be of l^ractical value in the midst of life's stern realities. Enough has been already said to show that such an accusation misinterprets completely the moving spirit of Christianity. At the same time, we must not forget that at a very early period of the Church's history there was a grave danger of pro- fessing Christians degenerating into idle dreamers and useless busybodies (irepiepyoi, 1 Ti 5^^, cf. 2 Th 3^1). Against this abuse St. Paul felt compelled repeatedly to contend (cf. Eph 4-^, 1 Th 4^^), while he set the e.xample in his own life of unflagging industry (see Ac 18^ etc.). There can be no doubt that in his restatement of the law of social econ- omics (' if any will not work, neither let him eat,' 2 Th 3^") St. Paul was profoundly influenced by the life as well as by the teaching of Jesus.

No thoughtful student of modern problems can fail to note how completely the future of the Christian Church is bound up with her attitude towards the labour question. Year by year that question assumes graver proi^ortions as the danger of a complete breach between emjjloyer and em- ployed becomes more formid.able. Nor can there be any serious doubt in the mind of a loyal subject of 'the Kingdom of the Incarnation,' that in the true interests of Christian development and pro- gress a real active harmony of aims and aspirations between capital and labour must be established. Representatives of both must be taught that the only solution of problems which seem to baffle them lies in the recognition of the truth that at bottom all hunum life is true and sacred according as it may be measured in terms of service. Jesus, who employed labourers in fields of activity selected by Himself (cf. Mt 10^), points out distinctly the complete identification of employer and employed as being the root idea underlying all vital jirogress (8s dv d4\7] iv v/j.7v elvai irpCoTOs '^crrai v/xwt> dov\os, Mt 2027, cf. Mk W^). Nor is the Incarnation above the sphere of this universal law. The Son of ]Man Himself {wawep) came not to be served but to serve {5iaKoi'Tja-ai), yielding up even His life for the sake of His fellow-men (Xvrpov avrl ttoWGjv, Mk 10*^ = Mt2028; cf. Lk2226'-).

' The labourer is worthy of his hire ' (Lk 10^) is a basal principle both broad and deep. It does not mean either that the employer's liability to his servant is discharged when he has paid him his stipulated wage, or that the latter's duty to his master ends with the outward fulfilment of a set task. Personal relationship involving mutual re- , sponsibility forms an essential part in the Chris- . tian solution of this economic problem. For the labourer is no longer in the position of a bond-

servant but of a friend, and is to be recognized as such (ovK^Tt. \e7a) i/yotas SovXovs . . . v/j.ds de eiprjKa ^LXovs, Jn 15^'').

Literature. See three remarkable addresses on social service by Westcott in his Christian Aspects of Life, especially that on 'The Christian Law,' in which he quotes from Bishop 'Tucker of Uganda the salutation ordinarily addressed in that country to a man engaged in manual labour, 'Many thanks; well done.' Consult also Westcott, Social Aspects of Christianity ; W. H. M. H. Aitken, Temptation and Toil, p. 209; E. Griffith- Jones, Economics of Jesus (1905) ; and The Citizen of To-morroiv (ed. S. E. Keeble), esp. ch. vi. with the bibliography on p. 123.

J. R. Willis. LAKE OF GENNESARET.— See Sea of Galilee.

LAMB.— See Animals (vol. i. p. 64'^), Names AND Titles of Christ, and Sheep.

LAME. This word, perhaps originally meaning bruised, signifies a cri^jpled or disabled condition caused by injury to or defect of a limb or limbs ; specifically walking with difficulty, inefficient from injury or defect, unsound or impaired in strength. It is applied metaphorically to all kinds of in- efficiency, such as inadequate excuses, or verses which offend against the laws of versification. The term embraces all varieties of defect in walk- ing arising from various causes, and includes halt- ing and maimed (see artt. ), which are separate and distinct species of lameness.

The Greek word is xaAoj, from obsolete ydcu or ^aXan; (to loosen, slacken), which is tr. ' lame ' in Mt lis 1530. 31 oii'i, Lk 722 1413 ; but in other passages for no apjiarent reason the same word is translated 'halt.' In Jn 53 x'^^-'^" is rendered 'halt' without any indication that a special species of lameness is intended, where the description is quite general as in the above passages. In Mk 943-45 it is used synonymously, with xuXXo;, where a.ia.rrr,()o? might have been expected in both cases, seeing that the injury referred to is the definite cutting off of the hand or foot. zi/AXo; is, however, most commonly associated with the hand, while x^^oV more specifically has to do with lameness in the foot or feet. In Mt 188 we have ;t_«Ai)v v, xuX^ev trans- posed in the authorities followed by RV, making the corre- spondence between x.^ip and xvXXov, and to'u; and xi^^''-

Healing of the lame was a characteristic work of Christ. Among the multitudes that gathered round Him seeking restoration for various ailments were jn-obably sufferers from many different kinds of lameness (as Mt 15^", Lk 7"-). Jn 5^ gives a comprehensive list of such sick jjersons, including the feeble, the blind, the lame, and the withered (TrXrjdos Twv do'devovvTwv, rixpXQv, xwAcDy, ^ijpwv). Prob- ably these miscellaneous cases would include those suffering from chronic rheumatism and from in- firmities having a nervous origin, many of which resulted in a withering of the limbs and of the bodily frame. It is significant that Jesus is never said to have restored the dvdir-qpoi, the badly mutilated deprived of their limbs (see Maimed). T. H. Wright.

LAMECH. Father of Noah, mentioned in our Lord's genealogy, Lk 3^^.

LAMENTATION (dprivos, epyveii').—An expres.sion of sorrow accompanied by wailing and other demon- strations of grief. It is as.sociated in Jn 16"'' with weeping, and also in Lk 23-', in the case of the women accompanying the Saviour to the Cruci- fixion. It is applied equally to sorrow for the dead and to grief for approaching disaster (Mt 2^**, Jn 1620, Lk 2327), and it is referred to by the Lord as one of the common games of children.

When a death occurred, it was intimated at once by a loud wail which is described (Mk 5^^) as accom- panied by a 'tumult,' and this lamentation was renewed at the grave of the deceased. Oriental demonstrations of grief are very vivid. Mourners hang over the lifeless form and beg for a response from its lips. When a young person dies un- married, part of the ceremony of mourning is a form of marriage (see art. MOURNING). Lamenta-



tion for the dead was also accompanied by beating the breast and tearing the hair, as well as by rend- ing the garments (see Rending of Garments) and fasting. W. H. Rankin E.

LAMP. There are two words in the tiospels translated 'lamp,' \vxfoi and Xa/xirds. The former (RV 'lamp,' AV 'candle') is used Mt o'^, Mk 4-', Lk 8'* of the usual means of lighting a house. In Mt 6-- the eye, as the source of light, the organ by which light is appreciated, is called the lamp (RV ; A V ' light ') of the body. In Jn 5»s the same word is applied to John the Baptist, who is not the eternal light ((puis, Jn P), but the burning and shin- ing lamp kindled by it and bearing witness to it.

The word Xafxirds occurs in Jn 18'', where it is rendered 'torch.' It is also used in tlie jjarable of the Ten Virgins, Mt 25, where it would be better translated 'torch.' In Ea.stern countries the torch, like the lamj), is fed with oil, wbich is carried in small vessels constructed for tlie purpose {dyyeiov, Mt 25^). See Candle, Light, Torch.

Literature.— Trench, Si/nonyms, ,\lvi. ; Hastings' DB, artt. ' Lamp ' and ' Lantern ' ; Edersheini, Life and Times, ii. 455 flf. ; H. J. van Lennep, Bible Lands and Customs, p. 132 ; W. M. Thomson, Land and Book, iii. 472.

C. H. Prichard. LANE.— See Street.

LANGUAGE OF CHRIST.— Recent historical and critical research has narrowed the ground which it is necessary to cover in the discussion of the question as to the language spoken by Christ. It has ruled Hebrew out of court. The practically unanimous verdict of recent scholars is that, considerably before the time of Christ, though when is uncertain, Hebrew had ceased to be spoken in Palestine, and its jjlace as the ver- nacular had been taken by Aramaic, the language represented in OT by Ezr 48-i« 7'-■-^ Jer 10", and Dn 2^-7-®, and mistakenly named ' Chaldee.'

The transition from Hebrew to Aramaic in- volved no great linguistic revolution, as it was simply a transition from one Semitic language to another, and that a closely cognate one. It was, however, only very gradually effected, and was chiefly due to the predominance to which Aramaic attained in Western Asia during the Persian period, coming, as it did, to be, with dialectical differences, the lingua communis from the Eujihrates to the Mediterranean. While, however, Aramaic thus gradually superseded Hebrew as the living tongue of Palestine, and by the time of Alexander the Great had probably reached a position of ascend- ency, if it had not gained entire possession of the field, yet Hebrew remained, though with some loss of its ancient purity, the language of sacred litera- ture, the language in Avhich Prophet and Psalmist wrote, and as the language of the books ultimately embraced in the OT Canon, continued to be read, with an accompanying translation into Aramaic, in the synagogues, and to be diligently studied by the professional interpreters of the Scriptures. It is, therefore, quite possible that Christ possessed a knowledge of Hebrew, and had thus access to the Scriptures in the original.

With Alexander the Great, however, there came a fresh disturbance of the linguistic situation. Thenceforward (ireek entered into competition with Aramaic. And though, as a non-Semitic language, the adoption of Greek could not come so readily to the Jews as Aramaic, yet the circum- stances were such as to tend in no small degree to counterbalance